Effect of transgenic and non-transgenic corn hybrids on the performance of quails and chicken: A review
Pengaruh hibrida jagung transgenik dan non-transgenik terhadap performa puyuh dan ayam: Review
Main Article Content
Ayam broiler, layer dan puyuh (Coturnix japonica) adalah jenis unggas yang semakin populer untuk dipelihara karena performa yang baik seperti produksi yang cepat, dan kemudahan perawatan, baik untuk penghasil daging dan telur di berbagai negara Asia dan di dunia. Unggas sering dipelihara dengan menggunakan jagung (Zea mays) sebagai sumber energi utama dalam ransum. Namun, dalam produksinya, jagung sering menghadapi masalah yang melibatkan hama arthropoda seperti Ngengat Penggerek Jagung Asia (Ostrinia furnacalis), dan oleh karena itu, teknologi rekayasa dalam bidang pertanian telah banyak mengembangkan banyak galur jagung transgenik yang telah ditanam dan dibiakkan agar tahan terhadap hama ini. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kinerja jagung transgenik sebagai pakan, keamanan dan kesetaraan gizi pada unggas baik sebagai penghasil daging maupun telur. Hasil review, menunjukkan bahwa di berbagai penelitian, tidak ada perbedaan yang signifikan antara parameter produksi pada ayam pedaging, petelur dan puyuh yang diberi pakan jagung non-transgenik konvensional dan transgenik. Kesamaan ini terlihat pada jenis unggas pedaging dan petelur. Penelitian untuk menganalisis efek jagung transgenik pada parameter komposisi kuning telur, dan komposisi otot ayam pedaging masih perlu dilakukan. Hasil kajian ini juga mengamati bahwa tidak ada gen dan protein transgenik yang tersisa setelah pemotongan unggas di dalam otot dan jaringan, yang menunjukkan bahwa masalah keamanan gen dan protein transgenik tidak ditransfer dari jagung ke produk unggas.
Kata kunci: Broiler; GMO; Kualitas daging; Pakan; Produksi telur
Broiler, Layer and Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) are species of poultry that have become increasingly popular to raise due to their performance such as fast production, and ease of care, either for meat and egg producers in many Asian countries and worldwide. As poultry, they are often raised using corn (Zea mays) as the primary energy source in the ration. However, corn often faces problems involving arthropod pests such as the Asian Corn Borer Moth (Ostrinia furnacalis), and as such, agricultural engineering technology has developed many strains of transgenic corn that have been grown and bred to be resistant to these pests. This article aimed to determine the transgenic corn performance as feed, safety and nutritional equivalence on poultry (quails and chicken) for meat and egg producer. The review determined that across various studies, there were no significant differences between production parameters in the broiler, layer and quails fed a conventional non-GMO diet and entirely transgenic corn. This similarity was seen in both meat and layer types. Though, research still needs to be done to assess transgenic corn's effects on parameters of yolk composition and breast muscle composition. The study also observed that no transgenic genes and proteins remained after the slaughter of the poultry in the muscle and tissues, indicating the safety concerns of transgenic genes and proteins not being transferred from the corn to poultry.
Keywords: Broiler; Egg production; Feed; GMO; Meat quality
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